How is information stored in DNA?

Information is stored in DNA through the sequence of its nucleotide base pairs, which encode the genetic instructions necessary for the development, functioning, and reproduction of living organisms. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-stranded molecule made up of four types of nucleotide bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). The sequence of these bases forms the genetic code, with each triplet of bases, known as a codon, representing a specific amino acid or a control signal. The information encoded in DNA is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid) through a process called transcription. RNA then serves as a template for protein synthesis during translation. The genetic code is universal, meaning that the same codons correspond to the same amino acids in all living organisms, providing a common language for life’s processes. The structure of DNA, with its complementary base pairing (A-T and C-G), allows for the faithful replication of genetic information during cell division. Mutations, which are changes in the DNA sequence, can introduce genetic variation and drive evolution. Our understanding of how information is stored in DNA has profound implications for genetics, biotechnology, and the study of heredity and inheritance.